SUES FORUM 54: 05/2024

Introduction

Welcome to Forum 54. In this issue, Roger Mitchell provides a preview of the SUES programme of courses and lectures for the 2024-2025 season. Further information on each of these will be provided next month, but meanwhile please make a note of any events that interest you. There is also an announcement by Alan Potter regarding SUES’ forthcoming exhibition at The Atkinson to mark the 150th anniversary of the University Extension Movement. Again, more information to follow.

We also have reports on the recent talk by Alan Crosby on Providing Elementary Education in Victorian Lancashire and Alan Potter’s recently completed course on Technology – How Things Work!

Mary Ormsby, our in-house expert on all things Scarisbrick, has contributed an excellent article on her research into the history of the pre-NHS Scarisbrick District Nursing Association.

Finally, may I remind you that our Annual General Meeting takes place at All Saints at 2:30 pm on Wednesday 24th July. It will be followed by a talk by Stephen Whittle, The Atkinson’s Principal Manager: Museum, Gallery and Operations. I hope to see you there.

Chris Nelson

Coming Shortly – The SUES Programme for 2024-2025

This is almost complete and will be published in full as part of the June edition of Forum. We are continuing our expansion with five courses, seven Friday afternoon meetings and two postgraduate seminars.

Our afternoon meetings will be on the last Friday of the month in September, January, February, March and April, but the next to last Friday in October and November. Topics will range from ghost stories to the Sydney Opera House by way of Greek Temples and Communist Hungary. The Postgraduate Seminars will need to be arranged nearer the time, but we will try to find dates for them on Fridays in the earlier part of the month.

We are expanding the number of courses from three to five. As usual these will be on Monday mornings. Peter Firth will be sharing the research that he and Mary Ormsby have been doing; his course (16, 23, 30 Sept and 7 Oct) will look at The University Extension Movement and will deal not just with SUES but with developments in other parts of the country. We are keen to use this course to spread the word about continuing education and to recruit new members. The Heritage Lottery funding that we have received enables us to offer this course to members and non-members without charge. We will be publicising it through our exhibition at the Atkinson and elsewhere and encourage all our members to come and to bring their friends.

The fee for our other four courses will be £5 per session which is unchanged from 2023-2024. From October to December, we will be welcoming back Ed Montana Williams to take us on An Artistic Journey through Mediaeval and Renaissance Europe. Many of you will remember Ed’s excellent lecture on Constable and Turner which was part of this year’s programme.

January 2025 takes us into new territory when Tim Helliwell asks What Could Possibly Go Wrong? A User’s Guide to Pathology. Many of you will know Tim as a SUES member, but he is also Honorary Professor of Pathology at Liverpool University. After teaching both undergraduate and postgraduate medics, he now feels ready to take on the daunting task of introducing us to his area of expertise.

2025 marks the 400th anniversary of the accession of Charles I and so, in February and March, Roger Mitchell is going to examine The Reign of Charles I, 1625 to 1649. This is one of the most dramatic periods in English history, with civil war and regicide, but there will also be a look at the art and architecture of the time, with Antony Van Dyck and Inigo Jones centre stage.

Appropriately, our Chairman, Alan Potter, concludes the year with an early summer course in May and June on The Science of Plants. Alan will be continuing his mission to bring the wonders of science to the non-specialist and, as usual, there will be many practical examples from the everyday to the truly exotic.

Roger Mitchell

Coming Soon: A Great Exhibition!

As part of our 150-year celebrations, an exhibition will be held at The Atkinson in Southport over the summer, which will showcase both the history of the University Extension Movement and the thriving nature of SUES today. The exhibition will be held over four weeks from its opening on Saturday 27th July 2024 through to Saturday 24th August 2024. This unique initiative will provide an opportunity for local people, and visitors to Southport, to better understand all about this important movement, created to enable people to experience university teaching that they had not been able to access before simply because they were women or poor or uneducated.

The exhibition will display rare documents throughout our long history, will explain key events that have enabled the society to survive and grow and, in particular, will celebrate the lives and contributions of many forward-thinking people. One such person is James Stuart (shown here), who was a prominent early activist and co-founder of the movement. We trust that you, as members, will drop in too and enjoy celebrating what we all clearly value and can be proud of supporting. We also hope that some visitors may consider joining us and, in doing so, enjoy the benefits that learning throughout the life-course can bring.

More details will be provided about the exhibition in the next edition of Forum.

Alan Potter

SUES Membership Secretary

Rob Firth has decided to step down from his role as Membership Secretary. SUES Chair, Alan Potter, has written to Rob on our behalf to thank him for the invaluable work he has done for the Society. During Rob’s very successful period as Membership Secretary, the number of members has risen to its current figure of approximately 100, and is still rising.

I have taken on the role of Membership Secretary on an interim basis until the AGM in July. My contact details are on the back page, as usual.

Chris Nelson

Meeting Report:
Providing Elementary Education in Victorian Lancashire with Alan Crosby, 26 April 2024

Alan Crosby opened his lecture by referring to Lord Ashley, the 7th Earl of Shaftsbury, the Poor Man’s Earl, the philanthropist, who despite his aristocratic background, was a great social reformer, always seeking to better the lives of the poor. He used his position in Parliament to instigate the 1833 Factory Act whereby children under the age of nine were banned from working in the textile mills and the mines. He also championed reforms to the lunacy laws. One of his major achievements was to facilitate the establishment of nation- wide primary education

In 1800, only 40% of males and 29% of females in England and Wales were literate. There were wide discrepancies between the higher literacy levels in the south of the country and the much lower rates in the industrial north, with Lancashire almost at the bottom of the county literacy tables. Alan explained that one of the most reliable ways of assessing literacy was to examine parish records, which he had done assiduously. How many brides and grooms could sign their names and how many only by an X?

Lord Ashley believed that conditions in the mills and the mines had turned the working classes into beasts. His scathing comment about Lancashire and its inhabitants was the subtitle of Alan’s lecture: “This great and terrible wilderness peopled by untutored savages.

The general perception of uneducated workers, particularly those from the industrial heartlands: Manchester, Leeds, Birmingham, The Potteries, was entirely negative. They were characterised by their immorality, dishonesty, criminality, backwardness and lack of hygiene. Lord Ashley believed in the civilising powers of education. He felt that most adults were too far gone ever to be redeemed. “My main object in banning child labour is to bring young children within reach of education.

According to the census of 1801, the population of England and Wales was 9 million. A hundred years later, in the 1901 census, the population had risen to 33 million. In the same period, the population of Lancashire rose from 600.000 thousand to 5 million. The Government came to recognise the need for educational provision but was daunted by the huge numbers involved. Who was going to pay for it all? Some of Lord Ashley’s Parliamentary colleagues considered that state funding of education was a waste of time and money and some feared it could even lead to radicalisation and subversion.

There were, of course, schools existing at this time but there was no government involvement. The sector was unregulated, the ad hoc teaching profession was untrained. The Church of England ran Sunday schools where children were taught to read through the Bible. The evangelical churches did the same. There were Dame Schools, usually run by untrained females, where standards were generally very low, and private schools for those who could afford to pay.

In 1844, Lord Ashley supported the setting up of Ragged Schools, which provided free basic education and three meals a day for destitute children and aimed to break through the cycle of poverty. The teachers were usually volunteers who could also teach skills such as carpentry or shoemaking.

After the establishing of the Ragged Schools, the government became seriously involved in education provision and provided grants for school building. The Schools’ Inspectorate was set up to report on the functioning of schools. Teacher training colleges were established to improve the quality of education and give the teachers (including many women) a professional status.

In 1870, Foster’s Education Act introduced universal and compulsory education for children aged between 5 and 12 in England and Wales. These schools had infant and junior sections and boys and girls were segregated, each with their separate playgrounds. In the 1880s, school boards were given the responsibility of setting up new schools in their area. Lancashire had 170 school boards by the end of the 19th century.

Alan’s knowledge of this subject, underpinned by his intensive research, particularly in Lancashire, gave us insights into the transformative steps which laid the foundation of our modern education system. And for this, we would like to thank him.

Christine Vasey

Course Report:
Technology – How Things Work! with Alan Potter

Image by rawpixel.com on Freepik

Alan’s course for 2024 dealt with the very broad subject of Technology. Alan defined technology as the taking of knowledge and applying it for useful purposes. There were six sessions, all taking place during April on a selection of Monday and Thursday mornings.

In the first session, it became clear that we were going to start at the very beginning: we learned that 3.5 million years ago, humanity’s ancestors began using tools, learning to stand on two legs in order to free their hands and arms for the purpose. Later (but still very early in the technology story) came the harnessing of fire, the first agriculture (about 12,000 years ago) and the creation of more efficient tools and weapons with handles. The development of smelting (extraction of metals from ore) brought about the ability to make items from metal: initially bronze, and later iron. Later still, tempering and quenching allowed improvements in the properties of metal. As an illustration of technological progress influencing human society, Alan explained that more sophisticated use of metals led, in 1814, to the first food canning process, and this in turn resulted in the opening of the first supermarkets!

We went on to consider machines, which are defined as devices that change the direction or magnitude of a force. Six simple machines, all of which were in existence by 600 BCE, are the lever, the wheel/axle, the pulley, the inclined plane, the wedge and the screw. We had a lively discussion while identifying familiar tools, machines and devices that are based on these six basic concepts.

The second session concerned the harnessing of energy (the ability to do work). We discussed the difference between potential energy (e.g., chemical energy stored in a battery, or elastic energy stored in a compressed spring) and kinetic energy actually doing work (thermal, electric, mechanical, etc.). Alan argued that our civilisation arose from our ability to convert one form of energy into another, a simple example being the conversion of human energy derived from food into mechanical energy through the use of hand tools.

We discussed the transfer of energy by conduction, convection and electromagnetic radiation. We learned of the work of James Joule and William Thompson (Lord Kelvin) who developed the First Law of Thermodynamics: that energy can neither be created nor destroyed but can only be converted from one form to another.

Alan introduced us to the electromagnetic spectrum, which ranges from radio waves (with the lowest frequencies and longest wavelengths) through microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays and finally gamma rays (the shortest wavelengths and the highest frequencies). We returned to this on a number of occasions during the course, as we explored the different parts of this spectrum and the technologies that use them.

We learned that, when standing in front of a magnetron emitting microwaves, Percy Spencer noticed a chocolate bar in his pocket was melting. This led directly to the first microwave oven, in 1947. Microwaves cause the water molecules in the food to vibrate, thus producing heat and cooking the food.

In Alan’s third lecture, we learned about ionising radiation (gamma rays, x-rays and some ultraviolet rays) which have enough energy to remove electrons from atoms in our bodies. Exposure can cause harmful effects, including skin burns and cancer. Happily, most of the ionising radiation from the sun is filtered out by the ozone layer of the atmosphere. The lower frequencies in the ultraviolet range are not harmful, and exposure can be good for health, enabling us to produce Vitamin D, dopamine and serotonin. We learned that artificially produced ultraviolet radiation is used in phototherapy for skin conditions and for attracting insects to their doom in ‘bug zappers’.

In Lecture 4 we considered the infrared range. Like ultraviolet, infrared rays are invisible to the human eye. The only creature that can see light in both the infrared and ultraviolet ranges is the goldfish. Who knew? Infrared radiation can be detected by the human body as heat – whether from the sun, or from a closer source such as an electric bar fire – and is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum most effectively absorbed by our bodies. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) working in the (invisible) infrared range are used in domestic remote-control devices, while passive infrared (PIR) devices are used in motion detectors for house alarms and security lights by detecting the intruder’s body heat.

Electricity was our next theme. The electric battery had been invented by Volta in the early 19th century, but has seen great improvements regarding size, portability, power, longevity and rechargeability. The introduction of lithium batteries in the 1980s was a major breakthrough and is a major reason for the success of mobile phones.

We learned how passing an electric current through a coil of wire generates a magnetic field, and that this is the principle of the electromagnet and the electric motor. The electric generator is based on the same principle working in reverse – it produces an electric current when it is turned by an external power source. Turbine generators in power stations are powered by steam, produced by the burning of fossil fuels or biomass or by a nuclear reaction. Practical renewable energy sources include hydroelectricity, wind turbines (particularly suited to the British climate) and solar cells. Most of us were surprised to learn that, in April 2024, wind power produced 43% of the UK’s power, followed by gas (18%) and nuclear (15%). A mere 1% was generated by burning coal.

We looked at how refrigerators work. Refrigerant gas is compressed, increasing its pressure and turning it into a liquid. Heat is lost as it liquifies and is removed through the radiator on the outside of the fridge. The refrigerant then moves to the evaporation coils where it draws heat from the air in the fridge, and turns back into a gas before going back to the compressor. Air conditioning units work in a similar way to refrigerators, cooling the air within the building and expelling the heat to the outside world. Air source heat pumps, which are starting to take over from gas boilers for domestic heating, and which are said to be 3-5 times more efficient, are essentially air conditioning units operating in reverse.

Our next topic was communication, tracing technical development from the early electric telegraph to the cell phone, culminating in the smart phone.

Satellites play a major part of modern communications. The GPS (Global Positioning System) is owned by the United States government. Signals transmitted by the satellites can be used by mobile phones (3G and above) to calculate their exact location on the planet. We also heard about laser technology and the networks of fibre-optic cabling that provide fast communication necessary for cell phone networks and internet data transfer.

Photo by photographer honghong-36228 on Freeimages.com

At the end of the course, Alan turned to x-rays and gamma rays. X-rays were discovered by accident in 1895 by Röntgen, who found that bone, but not flesh, was opaque to x-rays; medical use of x-rays started in Liverpool in 1897. The risk of burns and cancers from x-ray exposure was not understood until the 20th century. More recently, x-ray security scanners have become widespread. These machines use two detectors, allowing them to distinguish between different materials, which are displayed in different colours on the operator’s monitor.

Gamma rays are the most energetic part of the electromagnetic spectrum and to generate them we have to go to the atomic nucleus. They have medical uses in radiotherapy and also PET (Positron Emission Topography) scanning.

Alan delivered this course in his usual relaxed and informal style, combining the provision of information and knowledge with humour and occasional questions for us to consider. The quality of the questions from the audience, and the discussions within the group, demonstrated to me that Alan was (as always) successful in finding straightforward ways to explain complex ideas, to his audience, many of whom did not have a scientific or technical background. After every lecture there was a piece of ‘homework’ (neither arduous nor compulsory!), designed to keep us thinking about the content of the lecture, reinforcing some of what we had learned, and promoting some lively discussion at the start of the next session.

As the final lecture came to a close, Roger Mitchell thanked Alan on behalf of the group, and commended him for “encouraging us to keep on thinking”. Hear, Hear!

Chris Nelson

Margaret Wilford

It is with sadness and a real sense of loss that we report Margaret’s death on 9th May 2024. She had become increasingly frail and had recently moved to a care home, where she died peacefully. Margaret was our oldest member; her connection with SUES went back many years and she was interviewed by Peter Firth and Mary Ormsby as part of their research into SUES history for the 150th anniversary.

Margaret was the embodiment of ‘life-long learning’. For her, it began at primary school in Scarisbrick followed by Ormskirk Grammar School in the 1930s and 1940s. She became a student at Liverpool University and gained her degree in History and Italian in 1950. She went on to teach history, first at Thetford in Norfolk and later in Liverpool and Southport. One of her former pupils described her as “my lovely history teacher who remembered so much about me when I was at school”. Margaret’s memory was remarkable and so was the quality of her mind. In retirement, she continued to extend her historical knowledge and understanding through lectures, courses and, above all, reading. She was not averse to learning from television, but only if the programme met her standards. She was a regular attender and participant at the Continuing Education Courses run by Liverpool University at All Saints, Southport and taught by Roger Mitchell and Peter Firth. Sitting quietly in the corner, she was nevertheless a presence and invariably a positive one. Peter puts it perfectly when he says “During my talks, I often checked with her that what I was saying was correct. She was a real historian”.

Into her nineties she was still buying (and reading) new books, particularly on 16th century Britain and Europe, and we are currently finding appropriate homes for the contents of her library. Recently, her frailty restricted attendance at SUES courses and meetings but she was able to attend as recently as January of this, our anniversary year. She will be remembered with great affection and great respect.

Roger Mitchell

Health Care Before The NHS:
Scarisbrick District Nursing Association 1910-1948

Before the National Health Service came into being in July 1948, individuals had to pay for their medical care. At the turn of the century when the average wage of a working man was 20 to 30 shillings per week, the cost of employing a private nurse was completely beyond the means of the majority of families.

In 1898, Jamieson Hurry wrote District Nursing on a Provident Basis. He suggested a subscription of 1 shilling a year for an individual, or 2 shillings 6 pence for a family. By this he calculated that a population of 4000 would be able to support one nurse. Thus, the local District Nursing Associations were born.

Mieson Boyd Hurry
1857-1930
Surgeon & Physician

The associations were responsible for employing district nurses and paying their salaries, building homes for them to live in, and other expenses. In the association, people paid a small amount of money regularly in order to qualify for the services of a district nurse. Nurses themselves were frequently required to collect fees from the patients who could afford it. The large majority of these local associations were affiliated to the Queen’s Nursing Institute and all of them undertook fundraising to meet their outgoings.

Scarisbrick’s response was typical of how the village operated in those days, with men’s committees formed to discuss, the three schools used for meetings and women’s committees formed to do the work …or am I being cynical?

On 10th February 1910, a meeting was held in Scarisbrick with the “object of providing a District Nurse for the Township”. Those present voted unanimously to form an association, and Mr Henry Holman was elected Chairman, Mr Twist Secretary and Mr Peers Treasurer. At the following meeting in August several other gentlemen were invited to join the committee and it was agreed to hold meetings at each of the township’s schools to present the scheme to the ratepayers of the village.

The school meetings were fixed for successive evenings from 19th-21st September at Pinfold, St Mary’s and the Township (Pinfold) school, and were chaired by Mr Evan Heaton (Scarisbrick Bridge), Mr Henry Holman and Mr Henry Neale respectively.

The advantages of the nurse being provided under the Queen Victoria Nursing Association were discussed and it was agreed to proceed with this. A letter was therefore sent to the Manchester headquarters, requesting a visit by Miss Jennings to inspect the arrangements, so affiliation could be achieved as soon as possible. The scheme needed rules, so a separate committee was set up to agree them and Lathom Nursing Association was consulted to help with this. The rule requiring the nurse to work only under the supervision of a doctor was not considered workable in such a rural district, so this was modified, but the importance of working with the “Medical Men”, and not alone, was emphasised by the Nursing Association.

Having agreed the scheme, the practicalities of how it would be funded were addressed. Funding was needed to cover the nurse’s salary (£85 to £100 p.a.), medical instruments, medicines and a bike. The gentlemen agreed to form a ladies’ committee whose specific purpose was to raise the money required through subscriptions and fund-raising events, although the possibility of getting grants from charities like Peter Lathom’s Charity was also investigated.

The Marquis de Casteja was one of the early subscribers (£10 10s 0d). He bought much of the equipment needed to get things going and was made President of the Association. Rev. Ridley, the vicar at St. Mark’s, was another early subscriber (£1 1s 0d) and he subsequently joined the committee along with Fr Furniss, the priest from St Elizabeth’s.

On October 24th 1910, Nurse Fry1 arrived in Scarisbrick. She rented rooms in Morris House, the house on the main Southport to Ormskirk road, opposite what is now the Beefeater, which in 1916 became the local police station. She not able to start work until 7th November because the equipment needed had not yet arrived from Liverpool.

Initially, she had 10 patients; the local ‘medical men’ agreed to let her work alone on some cases, and her medicines were supplied by either Boots in Southport or Garside’s in Ormskirk. In January 1911, Miss Peterkin from the Queen Victoria Nursing Association visited to inspect the nurse and the work of the local Association – she advised strongly that the nurse did not take cases who could afford Doctor’s fees – and it was agreed that midwifery services would not be available to those whose husbands earned over 25s a week. In her report, Miss Peterkin said “Nurse Fry was well received everywhere and she did her work in a skilful and tactful way”. She noted that a “very good start had been made” and the work was “most promising”. By May 1911 Nurse Fry had 23 cases and, in that month, she made 131 home visits.

By the summer of 1912, the Association was struggling to raise enough funds to continue. The Marquis de Casteja opened the grounds of Scarisbrick Hall for a fete in July, but by December the Committee was again having to discuss if they could afford the services of a Queen’s Nurse. On 23rd of October 1912, Nurse Fry’s services were terminated and the Association was broken up with a debit balance at the bank of £10.

The district wasn’t without a nurse for long though because, on 19th December 1912, a ratepayers’ meeting was convened to discuss reforming the Association. Only thirty people attended, but the Association was reformed, taking on the debt of the old Association, its “cupboard and other effects”, and re-employing Nurse Fry at a salary of £100 p.a. To ensure that the funds were available to continue, collectors were organised for the different areas of Scarisbrick:

  • Kew District: Mrs Neale & Miss Johnson
  • Birkdale Road: Mrs Sutton & Mrs Masters
  • Hurleston Green to the Bridge: Miss Ackers
  • Brooklands to Scarisbrick House: Mrs Griffiths
  • Mount Farm to Martin Mere: Mrs Cropper & Mrs Ainscough
  • St Elizabeth’s to canal: Mrs & Miss Holman

Nurse Fry continued to work in Scarisbrick until the outbreak of war when she was called to be a territorial nurse at the Base hospital in Cambridge. Miss Goodes was appointed as temporary nurse at a salary of £65 p.a. Nurse Fry, however, returned sometime before 1916 because at a meeting in March 1916 there was a proposal for her salary to be raised from £100 to £102, with consideration being given at the end of the year to see if this could be increased further. At about this time, Lancashire Constabulary were in need of premises on the main Ormskirk to Southport road, so Nurse Fry was moved to a house in Hall Road.

In October 1917, Nurse Fry resigned because she had been appointed County Health Visitor for Preston, but this time the Association was financially sound, so they were able to advertise for a suitably qualified nurse at a salary of £70 p.a. Adverts were placed in The Hospital and Nursing Mirror and Miss McCauley of Turning Lane was appointed, starting duty on 1st March 1918.

The Association continued, but in 1923 funds were again low, so a parish ballot was held to determine whether the ratepayers wanted the services of a nurse. The results were disappointing: 141 households did not reply, 270 said yes, 38 said no, 3 were indifferent and 2 said they did not know the nurse! The date of 8th January 1924 was set for the Annual Meeting.

At the Annual Meeting, the decision was made to carry on the Association and throughout the following years fundraising events such sales of work, jumble sales, whist drives, bridge parties and fetes were organised to raise funds. In 1925, Lady Scarisbrick, who had by now become President of the Association, opened the gardens at Scarisbrick Hall for a fete. The catering was done by Messrs Wells & Hayes, professional caterers, but there were the usual stalls: a sweet stall run by Miss Pickthall, ice cream by Mrs. Marshall, dairy produce by Miss Swarbrick, fruit & flowers by Mrs Porter & Mrs Ackers, and so on. The event, held on 1st July, was a great success and raised £277 13s 1d for association funds, £200 of which was invested in War Loans.

As a result of increased funds, the Association looked to buy goods in bulk from Mr Woods the chemist, and also to purchase a bath chair. It was also decided that, since bike repairs were costing so much, the nurse could have a new bike!

By 1930 the nurse had 124 patients on her books and had made 1871 visits in the previous year. Non-subscribers were now asked to pay 2s 6d for a visit by the nurse and to purchase their dressings weekly.

Balancing the books of the Association remained a precarious business, and there are several references throughout the 1930s to funds being very low. However, the Committee and the community continued with their fundraising effort and, by 1939, had a balance of £119 12s 9d. The nurse’s salary at this time was about £170, with an increasing work load. For example, in the year ending March 1939, the nurse had treated 181 patients (145 surgical, 35 medical and 1 midwifery) making a total of 2629 visits. Of those cases, 3 were now in hospital, 164 were convalescing, 11 were still being treated and 3 had died.

Fundraising continued into the 1940s and the nurse’s salary was increased due to extra work, with a war bonus of £14 being added in 1941. The work of the Association continued until the advent of the National Health Service on 5th July 1948, when Lancashire County Council took over responsibility for the District Nursing service.

The last nurse, Nurse Ashurst, was presented with a silver tea set which had the Scarisbrick Coat of Arms inscribed on the tray. This was presented to her on 15th October during the interval at a whist drive to raise funds for the Cancer Research Committee. Mr Hyde, the last chairman of the Association, spoke of “the good work the nurse had done during her 4 years of service and how the public appreciated the same”.

When the Association was disbanded, it had total reserves of £756 2s 3d and this was divided equally between the three churches in Scarisbrick.

1 Agnes Emma Fry was born in Walton on the Hill in 1877, one of four daughters of Frederick Fry, a ship’s insurance broker, and his wife Emma. She died in Southport Infirmary on 11th February 1957 – her address at that time was Rivelin, Kew, Southport.

Scarisbrick District Nurses

NameApproximate Dates
Nurse Fry1910-1918 (with break 1914-1915)
Nurse Goodes1914-1915 (?)
Nurse McCauley1918-1926 (?)
Nurse Kirkham1926-1931
Nurse Griffiths1931-34 (?)
Nurse Harding1934(?)-1938
Nurse ToddTemporary cover
Nurse Kirkham1938-1944
Nurse Ashurst1944-1949

Mary Ormsby


Stuart England’s Catholic Queens

Speaker: Roger Mitchell

Venue: St. Helen’s Parish Centre, Alexandra Road, Crosby

Date: Thursday 16th May, 7:30pm

All welcome – no charge


Contacts

Chair: Alan Potter
alanspotter@hotmail.com
07713 428670

Secretary: Roger Mitchell
rg.mitchell@btinternet.com
01695 423594 (Texts preferred to calls)

Membership Secretary and Forum Editor: Chris Nelson
chris@niddart.co.uk
07960 117719

Facebook: facebook.com/groups/southportues


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